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2 November 2021



"Gain staging is important for recording and mixing and even mastering, and in some ways it even applies to what streaming platforms will do with the music that we record. " - Jan 'Yarn' Muths

About the 

host

With over 2 decades of recording, mixing and music production experience, Muths interviews musicians, producers and engineers from the Australian East Coast and the world. Always curious about production workflows, gear, software, techniques, and strategies. The Production Talk podcast is a must-listen for anyone interested in music production from the Northern Rivers and far beyond.

The Production Talk Podcast - The modern way of producing music

In this episode:

  • Gain staging is the foundation of all great recordings. In this tech talk episode, we shine a light on microphone level and line level, gain-staging using microphones by understanding their sensitivity, and Yarn's workflows setting proper recording levels.

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Contact the podcast host Jan 'Yarn' Muths at mixartist.com.au

Disclaimer: The Production Talk Podcast is independent of (and not related to) my teaching responsibilities at SAE.

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Jan 'Yarn' Muths or mixartist.com.au, in the studio

Transcript:

(auto-generated by a robot - please forgive the occasional error)

Welcome and hello. Everybody. Thank you for being on board again to yet another episode of the production talk podcast. It's great to have you on board again. Thank you very much. We've had quite a few new subscribers lately and if you are 1 of them. Thank you particularly to you. It's great to have you on board. There are lots of old episodes that you might want to scroll through and see if there's anything interesting in there. My gut feeling is you might find a couple of of interesting episodes for you so please go through the old ones and check and also let me know what you think about those episodes you can. Reach out directly to me on the Facebook group called production talk podcast community and it would be great to have you as a member on board there too Today's episode is a technical 1 and I hope you can forgive me for this but I've had quite a few requests asking about this strange term. Gainstaging what that means and how to do it and all of that I've been thinking about this for a while. So I decided to make an entire episode about the concept of gains staging that will probably benefit many of you self-producing producers at home. If you record your own music. So what is gainstaging and what's it all about? Gain staging is important for recording and mixing and even mastering and in some ways it even applies to what streaming platforms will do with the music that we record. So gain staging is the method that you apply to route proper levels from 1 device to the next. Um, that could be effectively from a guitar to an amplifier. It could be from a mixer to a compressor. It could be from a mixer to a reverb unit and from a reverb unit to an interface. The range of possible combinations is pretty much unlimited and we need to make sure that the level leaving 1 device is appropriate for the next 1 so let's say if you're a guitar or a bass player. Maybe you have experienced the difference between playing a passive pickup or an active pickup and I think the general consensus is that that active pickups on guitars and a bass actually produce a hotter signal. Which immediately makes your amplifier sound differently because a hotter signal arrives in some ways this is already gainstaging because you may now decide to turn down the volume on your guitar or on your base to manipulate the sound that you get on your amplifier. We can take this concept further and it ah basically applies to every single aspect of recording and later mixing and mastering and ah good gain staging is what I would call the secret source of really good recording engineers. It's the underlying skill that can make or break a recording. However, it's 1 of many aspects so we shouldn't look at gainstaging in isolation as the cure for everything. It's it's 1 element in its chain of different workflows. And we should not ignore other workflows like the sound of your instrument the playing technique the room you're in the microphone technique. All of those things are obviously very important. But once you've got those sorted gainstaging will make a big difference to the success of your recording. So let me explain a few things we need to know in order to understand gain staging better in 1 of our first episodes we discussed different level types and we came across things like microphone level instrument level also known as guitar level. And then line level in contrast to those. They are all different and let me just focus on line level for a moment when we talk line level. It's an international standard that allows you to output a signal of 1 device. Let's say produced in australia. And interface that with a different device. Let's say build in europe from different manufacturers they all follow the same level standard and that's why these signals are compatible which basically makes all the signals that operate online level compatible with 1 another across. Globe. We effectively have an international standard that everybody follows and that has some huge advantages for us as users. It basically guarantees if our levels are sitting in a certain pocket. They can be routed from 1 device to the next to the next to the next and we never hit any. Roadblocks or we never make any mistakes. So what the heck am I talking about what are those roadblocks or what are the problems that could occur well if we think about analog devices such as analog mixers or compressors and so on we generally refer to 2 extremes or. You know, 2 boundaries. That's the better word on the very top is ah the clipping point or distortion point. So if you turn something up too much eventually. You would drive a device into clipping and the device will sound distorted. This is a good thing sometimes for guitar amplifiers. But it's very rarely the case for mixes and compressors and so on unless of course that's what you want to do for the fun of it. But in most situations this is not what we want. So if you fed a signal too loud into a device you would be at risk of causing distortion. And that is definitely not something we want to do unintentionally on the other end we have what we call the noise floor. That's the self noise of a device. So every time you pass a signal through an analog mixer or a compressor or an amplifier or any other device. Little bit of noise floor is added and this noise floor imagine that to be fixed at a fixed level. So if you now pass your signal through the device at a really low level. It means that your signal now travels closer to the noise floor and if you were to gain this up at a later stage. You can recover the level that was lost. However, you will now also increase the signal of the noise and that might not be fantastic so to describe this concept. We usually use the term of signal-to-noise ratio and if you follow line levels. You can rest assured that you have a really really decent signal-to-noise ratio and that you also have a little bit of head room which prevents the signal from going into clipping. So. In other words, if you follow line level. Well you stay away from our 2 enemies surf noise. The quiet end and distortion if it's too loud. Those things should be avoided. Good ok, let's get a little bit more technical the line level that we refer to is also known as studio operating level and the technical description of that is. Plus four dbu. Well this is a technical term and ah to explain that further. We need to understand that voltage travels through these lades from a to b or from 1 device to the other and it's the voltage that transfers the signal. So. In other words, if you drop the signal. Strength or loudness less voltage travels through the cable and if you increase the volume. The amplitude then more voltage will travel through it the studio operating level that are defined as plus for dbu will come up with an average or rms that stands for root means square. Of 1 point 2 3 volts for studio operating lever please note that this is an average level. It is not the loudest level that we ever see so most devices have what we call headroom build in. Welcome and hello. Everybody. Thank you for being on board again to yet another episode of the production production talk podcast. It's great to have you on board again. Thank you very much. We've had quite a few new subscribers lately and if you are 1 of them. Thank you particularly to you. It's great to have you on board. There are lots of old episodes that you might want to scroll through and see if there's anything interesting in there. My gut feeling is you might find a couple of of interesting episodes for you so please go through the old ones and check and also let me know what you think about those episodes you can. Reach out directly to me on the Facebook group called production talk podcast community and it would be great to have you as a member on board there too Today's episode is a technical 1 and I hope you can forgive me for this but I've had quite a few requests asking about this strange term. Gainstaging what that means and how to do it and all of that I've been thinking about this for a while. So I decided to make an entire episode about the concept of gains staging that will probably benefit many of you self-producing producers at home. If you record your own music. So what is gainstaging and what's it all about gainstaging is important for recording and mixing and even mastering and in some ways it even applies to what? ah streaming platforms will do with the music that we record. So gain staging is the method that you apply to route proper levels from 1 device to the next. Um, that could be effectively from a guitar to an amplifier. It could be from a mixer to a compressor. It could be from a mixer to a reverb unit and from a reverb unit to an interface. The range of possible combinations is pretty much unlimited and we need to make sure that the level leaving 1 device is appropriate for the next 1 so let's say if you're a guitar or a bass player. Maybe you have experienced the difference between playing a passive pickup or an active pickup and I think the general consensus is that that active pickups on guitars and a bass actually produce a hotter signal. Which immediately makes your amplifier sound differently because a hotter signal arrives in some ways this is already gainstaging because you may now decide to turn down the volume on your guitar or on your base to manipulate the sound that you get on your amplifier. We can take this concept further and it ah basically applies to every single aspect of recording and later mixing and mastering and ah good gain staging is what I would call the secret source of really good recording engineers. It's the underlying skill that can make or break a recording. However, it's ah 1 of many aspects so we shouldn't look at gainstaging in isolation as the cure for everything. It's it's 1 element in its chain of different workflows. And we should not ignore other workflows like the sound of your instrument the playing technique the room you're in the microphone technique. All of those things are obviously very important. But once you've got those sorted gainstaging will make a big difference to the success of your recording. So let me explain a few things we need to know in order to understand gainstaging better in 1 of our first episodes we discussed different level types and we came across things like microphone level instrument level also known as guitar level. And then line level in contrast to those. They are all different and let me just focus on line level for a moment when we talk line level. It's an international standard that allows you to output a signal of 1 device. Let's say produced in australia. And interface that with a different device. Let's say build in europe from different manufacturers they all follow the same level standard and that's why these signals are compatible which basically makes all the signals that operate online level compatible with 1 another across. Globe. We effectively have an international standard that everybody follows and that has some huge advantages for us as users. It basically guarantees if our levels are sitting in a certain pocket. They can be routed from 1 device to the next to the next to the next and we never hit any. Roadblocks or we never make any mistakes. So what the heck am I talking about what are those roadblocks or what are the problems that could occur well if we think about analog devices such as analog mixers or compressors and so on we generally refer to 2 extremes or. You know, 2 boundaries. That's the better word on the very top is ah the clipping point or distortion point. So if you turn something up too much eventually. You will drive a device into clipping and the device will sound distorted. This is a good thing sometimes for guitar amplifiers. But it's very rarely the case for mixes and compressors and so on unless of course that's what you want to do for the fun of it. But in most situations this is not what we want. So if you fed a signal too loud into a device you would be at risk of causing distortion. And that is definitely not something we want to do unintentionally on the other end we have what we call the noise floor. That's the self noise of a device. So every time you pass a signal through an analog mixer or a compressor or an amplifier or any other device. Little bit of noise floor is added and this noise floor imagine that to be fixed at a fixed level. So if you now pass your signal through the device at a really low level. It means that your signal now travels closer to the noise floor and if you were to gain this up at a later stage. You can recover the level that was lost. However, you will now also increase the signal of the noise and that might not be fantastic so to describe this concept. We usually use the term of signal-to-noise ratio and if you follow line levels. You can rest assured that you have a really really decent signal-to-noise ratio and that you also have a little bit of head room which prevents the signal from going into clipping. So. In other words, if you follow line level. Well you stay away from our 2 enemies surf noise. The quiet end and distortion if it's too loud. Those things should be avoided. Good ok, let's get a little bit more technical the line level that we refer to is also known as studio operating level and the technical description of that is. Plus four dbu. Well this is a technical term and ah to explain that further. We need to understand that voltage travels through these lades from a to b or from 1 device to the other and it's the voltage that transfers the signal. So. In other words, if you drop the signal. Strength or loudness less voltage travels through the cable and if you increase the volume. The amplitude then more voltage will travel through it the studio operating level that are defined as plus for dbu will come up with an average or rms that stands for root means square. Of 1 point 2 3 volts for studio operating level. Please note that this is an average level. It is not the loudest level that we ever see so most devices have what we call hadroom build in to allow for short-term transients to ah. To exceed the line level without distortion. Most devices have a good healthy 10 sometimes fifteen dbs but there's actually no guarantee for those numbers. The hadroom of the devices may differ from device to device. So it's a good idea to learn how your device is. Work on this end. So at this stage. It's important to distinguish between the peak level. That's the loudest peak that we will ever see and the root means square or um rms level. So if you um. Ah, visualize the waveform of an audio recording in your dw. They often have a big chunky mitt in the middle which some people call the meat of the signal. That's what we would probably associate with the rms of the signal. In addition, you can see some spikes popping out. Sometimes to refer to those as a bart simpson haircut and those are the Peaks those are often transients often triggered by percussive signals such such as kick or snare and those ones can stick out a bit more but it's the rms level that is measured in 1 point, 2 3 volts r Ms. And that's what we define as our line level. Good. So if you if you want to use the standard you first need to gain up your microphone signals to match this level and that's exactly what we do with microphone preams. When it comes to the output of microphones then we will not find a standard such as 1 point 2 3 volts at all instead the level of microphones can differ significantly. Let's say if I whispered into a microphone or yelled into a microphone the voltage at the output of the mic would be significantly different. If you play a flute from 3 meters distance. You would have a tiniest bit of voltage if you shove a microphone into a kick drum and a rock drummer hits it hard. We might have a lot of voltage. So the voltage range that microphones produce can easily span like a factor of a thousand. And that's pretty extreme. That's why we need a microphone preamp to compensate for that those pre-ams are usually designed to cover a huge range of gain quite commonly about sixty Decibels sometimes more occasionally also less and that basically allows you to take almost any signal. And up to 1 point 2 3 vols um rms that's the goal of a microphone prem good. Ok. So I think we now need to talk more about how to use gains staging in the real world. Where does it actually start well some people would say it starts right here at the preamp but I would basically so pause right here and say let's go back 1 step further and look at the signal that you record and the microphone that you use if you go back to episode number 2 my microphone locker episode. You will find that we already discussed lots of things about microphones and we briefly touched on the subject of microphone sensitivity. So that is something that I only need to explain in a little bit more detail. Um, what is microphone sensitivity imagine. Some technical engineers in lab coats in an acoustic laboratory that is often what we also know as an anachoic chamber we're not talking technical stuff. We're putting the microphones on the test bench. What they do in those ennechoic chambers is to set up a speaker and an amplifier. And now they produce a certain sound level of a standardized value if you want a go specific. It's a 1 pascal or ninety four dbs spl but that's just on a side note then microphones are placed at 1 meter distance aiming straight at the Speaker. So if we now exchange the microphones and the sound source also called stimulus stays the same we can now measure the relative volume differences from 1 microphone to the other in other words in this test scenario 1 microphone might produce a couple of millivolts another 1 only half a milliv volt and the next 1 may be 3 hundred millivolts. In other words, each microphone produces a different amount of voltage given the exact same input signal at the same distance and so on under acoustically perfect conditions. That's exactly what we call Microphone sensitivity. You could also say that microphone sensitivity describes how hot a microphone is okay. All of this was really technical. How would you test this? Well 1 way is to look up the tech sheets of your of your microphones. However I know a better way. Take all your microphones line them up next to 1 another put on some headphones maybe turn your speakers off for now then start with the first microphone speak into it at a consistent level and gain it up until you hear it well on your headphones like the typical recording level that you would usually use then just quickly cut your headphones. When you disconnect the microphone plug in the next microphone and don't change the gain for now listen again. Chances are that when you speak at the same volume you now hear the second microphone either louder or quieter than the first 1 now make a note microphone 2 is. Say quieter than microphone 1 and you keep continuing with every single microphone you will find that they all produce a different volume on your bench in front of you sort them from left to right from the most sensitive. That's the loudest 1 to the least sensitive That's the quietest 1 if you want to put labels on them if you figure this out about your Microphone. You have a huge tool at hand. That's the microphone sensitivity and that helps you to pair the microphones with their sound sources. So here's the underlying principle opposites attract. In other words, if you have a very loud sound source. Let's say a kick drum a marshall amp things like this then you want to use a microphone of lower sensitivity. So. In other words, a loud source and a quiet microphone. The opposite also applies. Let's say if you want to record a shaker at 2 meters distance then you have a very quiet signal. In this case, you want to pair this with the most sensitive microphone you have. That's the 1 that produces the highest output. Sometimes if microphones are of similar ranges. You have a couple of choices and a bit of room to play. But what you definitely want to avoid is to pair the same things meaning pairing a very quiet sound source with a very quiet or low sensitivity microphone because. Ah, the output of those 2 will be such a small amount of a avoidage that your microphone preams may now struggle to gain it up the same applies for very loud sound sources. So if you need to mic a Baroque kick drum probably don't use the most sensitive microphone because together. They will produce so much voltage. It might already produce too much voltage for your preempt to handle. So the key is that opposites attract a loud sound source with a microphone with a quiet microphone and a quiet sound source with a loud microphone. That's a really good starting point what this will achieve for you is that you never need to use your microphone games in the extreme point positions meaning very low or very very high often. That's where preams don't work at their very best. You can take the concept further by applying the same to tone. For example, if you find that 1 of your microphones is brighter than the other do not pair this microphone with a bright sound source. So let's say if I had the brightest microphone in my locker and let's say a brighter female voice with a strong sibilings. Those 2 would not make a good pair together because chances are pairing a bright voice with a bright microphone will make the s sibilings go completely out of control later and I'll just chase my tail in the mix and in post-production. So if you have a bright thin sounding voice use 1 of your darker microphones. And the opposite. Ah obviously applies as well. So if you've got a darker sound source in tone. You may want to consider using a brighter microphone for that that will sort of balance things out right? at the source. So in addition to gain staging using Microphones we can also now say that we already. Balance out the tone tone staging not sure if that's a thing but I guess you get my point. The key is opposites a tra here. Okay so why is all of this important your prems cover a huge range of gain and I find that most. Preams don't sound very good in the very topmost position often I find that as the gain increases the noise flow of the pre-amp also increases but not necessarily in a correlated manner means that the noise floor can increase. Disproportionally so I usually try to avoid the most extreme settings cranking a gain up all the way and of our field that this might be necessary I rethink my microphone choice and see if I can get the microphone a bit closer to the sound source or switch it for a more sensitive microphone which now means my gain. Controlling my microphone pream operates in what I would call the comfort zone that's the area where it just operates at at at its best. Okay good I hope this makes all sense to you so. That's why we start in the room aiming the microphones and. Playing with the distance playing with the choice of microphone so that our preams don't have to do all the heavy lifting just before we move on in in case, the signal arrives too hot which can happen with very loud sound signals. Most preams will actually have a little. Press button which is labeled pad pad is effectively a simple circuit that adds a resistor right before the microphone preammp input stage and this resistor will lead to a drop in level before the signal hits the the Pream. So the de b range of your pad control that will depend on your device sometimes that's negative Ten d b sometimes negative twenty but usually pressing the pad will get a very loud input incoming signal back into a range where microphone pream can handle it. Well. Good if Pad is not available increase the microphone distance or choose a microphone of a lower sensitivity that's I believe all I wanted to say about gainstaging using microphones and. And now let's move on to the next step which is effectively turning up the gain controls and how much well for most people this is a very simple concept but it's actually so not. Experienced engineers have perfected the the art of gaining up signals and I would say that with enough experience this can make a huge difference for the recording process and if things go really Badly. Can also obviously cause negative side effects on all following stages of the production from editing to mixing to mastering eventually. So what do and you need to know about but turning up the gains. Well if itlips turn it down. Ah hope that everybody Agrees. We don't want to record too hot digital clipping is not something we want. It's not something that sounds good and I don't think there is any useful purpose for recording a clipped signal. Although I have to say that some engineers have told me that they can hear a difference. Whether that's true or not is yet to be determined but I remember I once met an engineer who told me that his drums sounded best when he just gained them up a bit into the clipping range for the analog warmth. He got well figure that. Um, and then he also told me that recording these clip drums sounded better in 1 dw over the other which really makes me wonder what this guy was smoking look in all honesty I believe that is not the right thing to do so don't record clipped signals. Please. You will probably regret this later. So if it's clear being turn it down. That's a firm rule that we should all ah follow the next is the concept of remembering gain positions. Well. I am all for fast and effective workflows and if you've worked out a certain workflow It's a smart idea to remember it and being able to replicate it again and again accurately is a good thing. However, I've also met people who said that. Whenever they record a vocal they turn the gain up to the 12 o'clock position as a journal rule independently of who they record and what microphone they use and that's where I would say no, that's no longer working so generally speaking I don't think it's a smart idea to memorize. Ah, things like every guitar must be recorded at again at 3 o'clock 3 o'clock and vocals at 12 o'clock or so that's not a wise idea instead apply the amount of gain that the incoming signal needs. And the best way to get your signals up. There is to watch your meters I guess you were aware about meters because you know about clipping and those are the things that turn red when you clip. So as we said before that's not where we want to be but where in the green or orange on some meters. Do we want to be so therefore we first need to understand meters in a little bit more detail some audio interfaces show you meters on the front a very popular example is the focus right? Scarlet amazing sounding interface for the prize tag. Very popular for a good reason and there's a little led circle around the gain controller that lights up as you speak into the mic and it actually changes changes color. So when it gets too hot. It will start to turn red this is your meter already. This is your first meter. But in all honesty, it's a rather coarse 1 it's not very detailed. So here's the problem with meters where they use that 1 on the scarlet or on your other interface or in your dw none of the meters has enough real estate to actually show everything that's going on. And by that I mean our human hearing can digest a volume range from zero dbspl to about 1 hundred and twenty dbspl that is a whooping range of 1 hundred and twenty decibels no meter that I'm aware of. Covers all of those 1 hundred and twenty Dbs very accurately. So instead each type of meter highlights a certain area of these 1 hundred and twenty Dbs and there are certain things that are designed or that are set in the meter type that you use that magnify. 1 range and have less or show less emphasis on another you can imagine um, taking your camera. Let's say a digital. Um, dear, what's called dslr camera a dslr camera and you Would like to take a photo of a skyscraper if you're close by. You will find that not the entire skyscraper can be in focus once you focus the top of the skyscraper. You will find that the mid and bottom a section is. Somewhat out of focus and blurry if you change the focus to highlight other areas suddenly the peak or the the top of the skyscraper is no longer on focus and meters work just like that. The problem is that each dw uses a different type of Meter. They behave differently in speed or reaction time and also in scale means which of the areas is in focus and which of the areas are out of focus and to make it even more complicated. A lot of dw's allowed to change the meters. And I'm using protots here as an example, Protos has a huge range of different meeting metering options and I think it's really good to have those so let me just sum up some of the most common ones in most dws the default meter is known as a peak meter a peak meter is ah yeah, like focusing on the loudest bits of your signal. Those are the absolute Peaks of kicks and snares and transient material percussion percussive material. That's what they magnify a lot. However, they don't magnify what I called the beef of the signal or the chunky bits the the loudness range of of a signal very well. So if you only follow peak meters. You don't get a good indication of how loud 2 signals are in relation with 1 another. Let me take let's say a distorted guitar and itimbali or other percussive instruments if you record those next to each other and just watch the peak meters. You will get a very bad indication of how loud they actually sound relative to 1 another. However. You get a good indication of ah where their loudest Peaks are I personally prefer to switch my recording meters to um rms and peak mode and pro toolss when I choose um rms mode I use the same method root means square that is applied to our line level. Plus four dbu that was also measured as 1 point 2 3 volts r mass and power rs we now mean that the focus of the meter is towards the loudness or the chunky bits rather than the transients that stick out of the signal. In case of the pro toolss are a mess meter. It also shows a very thin line. It's just 1 pixel wide which indicates where the peak lies so it actually shows both That's why I personally prefer them here's my method of setting recording levels when I track a band in protoos. First think about the finished mix and just for a second let's just visualize the waveform overview of a finished mix the mix file should still show us the beefy bits in the middle where the loudness sits and in addition, the spike sticking out that bart simpson haircut. So what are those things that stick out most there's a very good chance that we would identify kick and snare in some situations that may be something else, but it's probably a different percussive instrument in Latin music. For example, it could be a cowbell things like that. Whenever I record a band I try to gain up that signal first. Whatever the loudest is in case of a band recording probably kick and snare and I would now gain up my prems so that the meter in pro tools reads about negative twenty um rms. Give or take negative twenty rms on some pros converters is exactly the same as plus 4 db or 1 point 2 3 volts rs so I'm basically sticking with the line level recommendation. Please note that depending on the audience interface. That you use this range in the digital domain might be a little bit higher or lower but it's definitely not zero dbfs at the very top. It's usually around the negative eighteen mark sometimes negative 16 on. Let's say epoges sometimes it can be configured. Good. So if I um, if I record my kick and sneer so that the meters show about negative twenty rms or possibly make the decision to compress the signal slightly to tape meaning before it hits my converter to reduce the peak level a little bit little bit. However, that's an aesthetic choice and I would never decide on compression based on meters. That's not a good idea. It's got to be an aes static choice. So once I gain up my kick and snare to read negative twenty rms in pros. I would now continue gaining up signals ah relative to kick and snare. So. In other words if I wanted to record a signal that is meant to be fairly quiet in the mix I would actually record it a bit quieter as well and I would always use kick and snare as my reference points. So when I gain up, let's say that Tom or an overhead a high hat I asked myself how much volume would I want to make the drum set sound level balanceanced and that's how it recorded since kick and sneer are the 2 signals that. Stand out of my mix most or the other signals will naturally be recorded at a lower level and I don't need to worry about clipping anymore. So when I do a band recording I try to record the signals so that I basically have a leveled mix. With all the faders at unity means none of the fader has been moved I find this is a very good workflow. Um, it's definitely not the only workflow in the world but it makes my life a lot easier when i. Mix the songs that are recorded good when it comes to making those decisions. There is obviously a lot of personal choice and we always need to consider the gear that we work with so. After explaining my workflow to you I have to wave a little flag and raise a little disclaimer here. Obviously I always listen very carefully to how things behave and if I notice that a certain preamp or microphone is not really happy sounding or doesn't doesn't sound clean to me. I will change my my gainstaging workflow according to what I hear so to me my workflow is not set in stone and it shouldn't of course but I always reconsider it as I use new gear. Some gear is very happy to record a little bit hotter. Other gear starts to get a bit fuzzy around the edges and that can also be something that I want organs for example, might sound quite nice if they're driven a little bit. However, in most cases I prefer to record the signal on the cleaner side. And make those mixed decisions later. Okay, so if you want to give my workflow a try I would say give it a good shot. My gut feeling is that your recordings will turn out better this way and however, as I just said take it with a pinch of salt and always ask yourself. Okay is that the right. Thing to do in my scenario so your preams may want to guide you down a different path that is perfectly fine then. Ok, good and with these words today I'd like to finish this episode. It was very technical I hope you got something out for yourself and please recommend this podcast series to all your friends. I would really like if you could please hit the subscribe button right in your podcast player and if you go to the end of the episode. You can also open up the show notes for this episode where you will find further information. Thank you for tuning in today I am very much looking forward to speaking to you again next week everybody have a great time talk to you soon bye for now you.
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